SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply the techniques for operating four wheel drive (4WD) vehicles, in on-road and off-road conditions 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
254135  Apply the techniques for operating four wheel drive (4WD) vehicles, in on-road and off-road conditions 
ORIGINATOR
Task Team - Recreational Driving 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 11 - Services Transport, Operations and Logistics 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for learners seeking to apply the basic concepts of 4WD. This unit standard will enable the learner to practically demonstrate the basic knowledge and skills required to handle a 4WD, on-road and off-road, perform vehicle preparation, understand preventative maintenance and handle basic recovery situations and equipment, in an environmentally considerate manner. 4WD vehicles include all terrain vehicles (ATVs), Quad and Off-road Motor Bikes.

The qualifying learner is capable of:
  • Identifying the range of features, vehicle options and capabilities of a 4WD vehicle or an ATV or a Quad Bike or an Off road Motor Bike.
  • Demonstrating an understanding of the preparation of a vehicle for off-road conditions.
  • Demonstrating a basic understanding of the various chassis and suspension configurations.
  • Demonstrating a basic understanding of a drive train.
  • Operating a 4WD vehicle in off-road conditions.

    This unit standard include all terrain vehicles (ATVs), Quad and Off-road Motor Bikes, however, learners that are found competent to operate a standard 4WD vehicle or an ATV will not be competent to operate a Quad or an Off-road Motor Bike unless they repeat this unit standard for a Quad or an Off-road Motor Bike and vice versa. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Communication NQF Level 2.

    It is assumed that the learner accessing this standard will be in possession of a Code A, B, or EB Drivers Licence or any such licence deemed applicable in terms of the legislation in force at the time and has an understanding of the knowledge required of road users. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Identify the range of features, vehicle options and capabilities of a 4WD vehicle. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The criteria applied when selecting a vehicle for a specific application are explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Vehicle criteria include but are not limited to range of vehicles, seating capacity, load capacity and distribution and economy.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    A range of vehicles, options and capabilities are identified with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Vehicle options and capabilities include but are not limited to configurations for 4WD vehicles, options including Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV), Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) and capabilities including permanent 4WD, part-time 4WD, low range, axle differential locks, free-wheeling hubs.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The limitations of 4WD vehicles and the definition of limiting angles and dimensions are explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Limitations include but are not limited to centre of gravity, overall dimensions, height, ground clearance, approach angle, departure angle, breakover or ramp angle.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The power sources and options for various models are explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Power sources and options may include diesel, petrol, compressed natural gas (CNG), electric, manual transmission, semi-automatic transmission, automatic transmission.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    An understanding of the braking system is explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Braking systems may include but are not limited to foot brakes, handbrake, assisted brake system (ABS) (on-road and off-road), Electronic Brakeforce Distribution (EBD), traction control systems including differential locks.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The location and operation of all controls on vehicle explained in relation to the operator handbook (owner's manual). 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aspects of the operator handbook to be explained include but are not limited to adjustment of controls (seat, mirrors, headrest, and seatbelts), maintenance items and warning lights.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the preparation of a vehicle for off-road conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Fuel, oil and water levels are determined for off-road requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The use of lights when operating a vehicle off-road is demonstrated in various contexts. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Required tyre pressure and ways to maintain tyre pressure are explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The tools required to fix and maintain vehicle for off-road conditions are explained in relation to the purpose of each. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Recovery equipment is identified with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Safety and health equipment are explained in terms of their purpose limitations, advantages and disadvantages. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Safety and health equipment includes but is not limited to first aid kits and fire extinguisher.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The vehicle safety features are explained in relation to various operating conditions. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate basic understanding of the various chassis and suspension configurations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The chassis and body type construction are explained with reference to benefits and various operating conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The role of springs (load carrier) is explained in relation to various operating conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The role of shock absorbers (damping) is explained in relation to various operating conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The axle and springs characteristics are explained as they relate to various operating conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Axle and springs may include but are not limited to solid axle with leaf springs, solid axle with coil springs, independent suspension and variable ride height control.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate a basic understanding of a vehicle's drive train. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The use of the clutch for various conditions are explained in the context of on-road and off-road conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The functions of manual and automatic gearboxes are explained in relation to various operating conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The function of a propshaft, an axles and a driveshaft is explained in relation to how they affect various operating conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Hubs are explained in relation to manually and automatically locking hubs. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Operate a 4WD vehicle in off-road conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Off-road obstacles and off-road route selection is explained with references to the regulatory framework. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Permanent and part-time 4WD are engaged in various operating conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    High and low range drives are engaged in various operating conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Axle differential locks are engaged in various operating conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    A route through evaluated obstacles is determined in accordance with best practices. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Obstacles may include but are not limited to ascents, descents, rocks and rough terrain, water and mud, river crossings, sand driving, ditches and dongas, veld conditions, grass and cambers.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Stall starts are applied in relation to various obstacles and off-road terrain in accordance with best practices. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Obstacles may include but are not limited to ascents, descents.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    A 4WD vehicle is operated over various obstacles and off-road terrain in accordance with best practices. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Obstacles may include but are not limited to ascents, descents, rocks and rough terrain, water and mud, river crossings, sand driving, ditches and dongas, veld conditions, grass and cambers.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Any individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Regulatory framework:

    Vehicle features:
  • Types, options, capabilities.
  • Criteria for selection.
  • Limitations.
  • Dynamic characteristics: Centre of gravity, dimensions, height.
  • Safety related features. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems using critical and creative thinking processes are addressed when identifying potential hazards and recognising existing hazards and dangerous situations and identifying ways to eliminate or minimise them when operating 4WD in various conditions and terrains. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community are addressed when imparting the necessary skills and knowledge to participants in various 4WD operating conditions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively are addressed when maximising use of 4WD features and uses in various operating conditions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information are addressed when collecting information on and understanding all the vehicle features, tools and maintenance procedures in various operating conditions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion are addressed when conveying information pertaining to operating conditions, etc to other drivers and passengers in the vehicle. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of interrelated systems is addressed when recognising that potential negative effect undisciplined use of 4WD vehicles can have on the environment and on other road users as well as understanding the effect of terrain, weather conditions and other road users on a vehicle and its safety. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Participate as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities ensuring that environmental conditions and safety and health procedures relating to 4WD vehicle activities are adhered to. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  50285   National Certificate: Professional Driving  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Advascore PTY LTD 
    2. Algoa Bus Company 
    3. Baobab Corporate Meets Lifestyle CC 
    4. Blessed Assurance Worship Centre 
    5. Centre for Logistics Excellence (Pty) Ltd 
    6. Dees Driver Training Centre 
    7. DIONYSUS SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE PTY LTD 
    8. Gerotek Test Facilities 
    9. Golden Arrow Bus Services 
    10. He and She Driver Training Centre 
    11. Ikaheng HR Services Pty Ltd 
    12. Inkqubela Consultants 
    13. Learncorp 
    14. Licence Wise 
    15. Makwedeng Training 
    16. Mpofu Engineering Projects 
    17. NOSA LOGISTICS PTY LTD 
    18. Nowethu Learning Institute cc 
    19. Offventure CC 
    20. Pal Passenger Bus Services 
    21. Phephani Learnerships cc 
    22. PUTCO Limited 
    23. SPINA Consultancy cc Cape Town 
    24. The Training Connection 
    25. Transvaal Training 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.