SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply elementary principles of aircraft navigation theory 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
244207  Apply elementary principles of aircraft navigation theory 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2015-07-01  2018-06-30  SAQA 10105/14 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2019-06-30   2022-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will contribute to the full development of the learner within the context of basic aeronautical navigation. Learners who have achieved this unit standard will increase their opportunities for further learning and employability within the Aviation industry.

Learner will be able to:
  • Describe the geometrical shape and properties of the earth in terms of navigation principles.
  • Calculate distance, speed, time and conversions between systems of units.
  • Explain magnetism in navigation.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of chart and map projections in aeronautical navigation.
  • Interpret aeronautical chart data.
  • Calculate time in terms of basic aeronautical navigation.
  • Apply dead reckoning (DR) navigation in terms of elementary aeronautical navigation. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Physical Science, Mathematics and Communication at NQF Level 4. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • In the context of this unit standards a chart consist of aeronautical information for navigational purposes.
  • In the context of this unit standards a map provides topographical information and information on boundaries.
  • The terms "aircraft" and "aeroplane" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • This unit standard is applicable to navigation in short and medium range operations using ground based navigational aids and equipment, materials and practices typically found in the commercial operation of aircraft. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Describe the geometrical shape and properties of the earth in terms of navigation principles. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Properties refer to the earth and the solar system. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The shape and size of the earth is described in terms of its effect on navigational principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Position reference systems are explained in terms of aeronautical navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Position reference systems include but are not limited to latitudes, longitudes and other grid systems.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The solar system is described in terms of planetary motion and its relevance to navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Earth rotation and orbit is described in terms of its effect on celestial events. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Celestial events include but are not limited to seasons, sunrise and sunset.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Direction and distance on earth are described in terms of navigation activities. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Direction includes but is not limited to true north, magnetic north and compass north.
  • Distance includes but is not limited to nautical miles, statute miles and kilometres.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Measurement of distance and direction are described in terms of basic navigational principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Measurement of distance and direction includes but is not limited to distance tables, measurement on tables and charts or globe, navigational computers and conversion.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Calculate distance, speed, time and conversions between systems of units. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Systems of units include but are not limited to nautical miles, knots, statute miles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Conversions of distance units and velocity units are calculated by making use of standard formulas. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Distance units include but are not limited to nautical miles, statute miles and kilometres.
  • Velocity units include but are not limited to knots, miles per hour and kilometres per hour.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The relationship between velocity, distance and time is described in terms of their effect on navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Variations in velocity, distance and time are calculated in order to determine their impact on navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Velocity and speed are described in terms of their differences and effect on navigational principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The difference between true, magnetic and compass directions are explained in accordance with navigation protocols. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Conversions between true north, magnetic north and compass north are calculated by using standard formulas. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Explain magnetism in navigation. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Magnetism includes but is not limited to aircraft magnetism and compasses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Magnetism is described in terms of general scientific principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    General scientific principles include but are not limited to ferromagnetism, induced magnetism and magnetic force fields.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Terrestrial magnetism is described in terms of parameters relevant to navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aircraft magnetism is described in terms of its origin and the effects on aircraft compasses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Direct and remote reading compasses are described in terms of their operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Compass errors are described in terms of its impact of aircraft systems and manoeuvres. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Compass calibrations are explained in terms of maintenance procedures and ICAO standards. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of chart and map projections in aeronautical navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Properties of map and chart projections are described in order to apply required formulas. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Properties includes but is not limited to chart scale and types of maps.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The construction of aeronautical maps and charts is described in terms of international cartography principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Construction includes but is not limited to earth shape models and map projections used for aeronautical purposes.
  • Aeronautical maps includes but is not limited to lamberts, polar stereographic and transfer projections.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Lines on maps are identified and described in terms of their uses. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Lines include but are not limited to meridians, great circles, rhumb lines and small circles and the equator.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Mercator and Lamberts conformal conic projections are described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Properties of World Aeronautical Charts are described in terms of their application in basic navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Properties include but is not limited to scale, projection and aeronautical information.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    A position is located and identified by interpreting grid information. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Interpret aeronautical chart data. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Types of charts, area of coverage and date of issue are identified with regards to their purpose in order to interpret the data for specific uses. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Types of charts include but is not limited to route charts, radio navigational charts, small-scale plotting charts, en-route charts, instrument approach charts and terminal area charts.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    General problems are described to reflect the complications in correctly representing a sphere on a plane surface. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Distance is calculated using different scaled aeronautical charts. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Chart symbols are identified in order to interpret data gathered. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Typography represented by the map is interpreted in order to inform decision-making with regards to the route of the aircraft. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Airspaces and aeronautical facilities represented on the chart are interpreted in order to inform decision-making with regards to the route of the aircraft. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Neighbouring charts are selected in terms of chart and geographical orientation. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Calculate time in terms of basic aeronautical navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Time systems are identified as used in aeronautical publications and information sources. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Time systems include but are not limited to co-ordinated universal time (UTC), Zulu time and International date line.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Time conversions between co-ordinated universal time (UTC), (Zulu time), standard time or local time are calculated in order to consider time differences. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The need for time zones and universal time standard for aviation are explained in order to portray an understanding of the effects of time on navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Time estimates are calculated in support of accurate navigation. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 7 
    Apply dead reckoning (DR) navigation in terms of elementary aeronautical navigation. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    DR may be conducted in a simulated environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Terminology used in DR navigation is described to reflect an understanding of DR components. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Terminology includes but is not limited to distance, direction and speed.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The triangle of velocities is described in terms of its effect on navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Triangle of velocity refers to wind, ground speed and air speed.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The elements of DR navigation are utilised in order to determine a geographical position. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Elements of DR navigation include but is not limited to triangle of velocity, altitudes and meteorological conditions.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    DR Navigational errors related to the triangle of velocities are solved by using navigation computers. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Navigation computers include but are not limited to aristor computer and or electronic versions.
  • Errors refer to but is not limited to:
    > Speed, distance, time, fuel consumption, and conversion between units, indicated air speed, true air speed and density altitude.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Navigational data are calculated for flights between nominated points on aeronautical charts in a simulated environment. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Navigational data include but are not limited to required tracks, headings, ground speeds, distances and estimated times.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Aircraft operating limits are explained for flight planning purposes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Operating limit includes point of no return, radius of action, points of equal time, critical points, point of no alternates.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Aeronautical charts include but are not limited to:
  • WAC 1:1 000 000 and 1: 500 000 charts.
  • Aerodrome charts.

    Time includes but is not limited to:
  • UTC.
  • Local time.
  • Standard time.

    Direction includes but is not limited to:
  • Track.
  • Heading.
  • True, magnetic and compass directions.
  • General principles of World Geodetic System - WGS 84.

    General principles and application of gyroscopes (ICAO):
  • Simple gyroscope.
  • Directional gyroscope.
  • Applications; INS/IRS.

    General principles of magnetism:
  • Magnetic poles.
  • Lines of force.
  • Magnetic materials.
  • Resolution of the earth's total magnetic force (intensity) into vertical and horizontal components.
  • Directive force and magnetic dip and variation.
  • Components of aircraft magnetism.

    Definitions of (ICAO):
  • True Airspeed (TAS).
  • Indicated Airspeed (IAS).
  • Ground speed.
  • Track.
  • Drift.
  • Mach number.
  • Speed indicators.

    Methods used to in flight to measure track and ground speed (ICAO):
  • INS.
  • IRS.
  • Doppler navigation system.
  • Area navigation systems.
  • Drift meters.
  • Tracking by ground radar.
  • Fixes determined by flight crew.

    Altimetry systems and principles (ICAO):
  • Pressure altimeter.
  • Altimeter setting procedures (high and low flight).
  • Precautions for terrain clearance.

    Methods used by flight crew to determine aircraft position (ICAO):
  • INS.
  • IRS.
  • GNSS.
  • Visual Navigation system.

    Dead Reckoning Navigation (DR):
  • The use of mechanical navigational computers.
  • Miscellaneous DR inconsistencies and practical means of correction.

    Charts:
  • Basic map orientation (types and characteristics).

    Elapse times, en-route times and departure times or waypoint times. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • The navigational computer is used to solve problems involving speed, distance, time, fuel consumption, conversion between units, indicated air speed, true air speed and density altitude.
  • The navigational computer is used to solve problems involving the triangle of velocities. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • The type of chart, area of coverage and date of issue of the chart are identified.
  • Chart symbols are interpreted.
  • Time systems utilised in aeronautical publications and information sources are identified. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Properties of World Aeronautical Charts are described in terms of their application in basic navigation.
  • The shape and size of the earth is described in terms of its effect on navigational principles.
  • Position reference systems are explained in terms of aeronautical navigation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion during:
  • Communication is in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity of communication is achieved.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • The relationship between velocity, distance and time is explained and applied.
  • Required tracks, headings, ground speeds, distances and estimated times are calculated for flights between nominated points on aeronautical charts.
  • Conversion between velocities expressed in different units is performed.
  • The shape and size of the earth is described.
  • The concepts of latitude, longitude and altitude are understood.
  • Meridians, parallels, rhumb lines, great circles, the equator and the tropics are described.
  • Direction using true north, magnetic north, compass north is explained and conversions carried out.
  • Distance measures (nautical miles, statute miles and kilometres) are defined. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • Estimated time of arrival is calculated from estimated times en route and departure or waypoint times. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Abbreviations:
  • DR: Dead Reckoning Navigation.
  • UTC: Universal Time Constant (Co-ordinated Universal Time Constant).
  • TAS: True Airspeed.
  • IAS: Indicated Airspeed.
  • INS: Inertial navigation system.
  • IRS: Inertial Reference System.
  • GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite System.
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation.
  • WAC: World Aeronautical Charts.
  • WGS: World Geodetic System. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  59256   National Diploma: Flight Dispatch  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Fundamental  58581   National Certificate: Air Traffic Support  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2018-06-30  TETA 
    Fundamental  60549   National Diploma: Aeronautical Information Management Practice  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Aviation Training Academy 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.